[Thesis]. Manchester, UK: The University of Manchester; 2015.
This thesis was funded by a scholarship from the Faculty of Engineering and Physical
Sciences, University of Manchester and is presented in an alternative thesis format.
The thesis consists of three separate journal articles which form a coherent research
project.Paper 1 is a climatology of tornadoes in the British Isles from 1980–2012.
The climatology included interannual variability, seasonality, diurnal cycle, intensity,
location of occurrence, sounding-derived environmental parameters, and parent storm
types of tornadoes. One finding from Paper 1 was that the most common parent storm
type in the British Isles was linear storms, for example, storms forming along cold
fronts. This finding motivated Papers 2 and 3, which studied vortexgenesis in a tornadic
narrow cold-frontal rainband (NCFR), a storm type common to the British Isles, which
occurred 29 November 2011. This NCFR caused seven tornadoes across Wales and England.
Paper 2 compares the differ- ences in WRF simulation runs of the NCFR based on initialization
time, planetary boundary layer scheme, microphysics scheme, and land surface scheme.
Out of 96 simulations, the most realistic (most similar to observed radar reflectivity)
run was chosen for a case study in Paper 3. Paper 3 analyzes vortices along the NCFR
to determine mechanisms dominating their formation and maturation.