[Thesis]. Manchester, UK: The University of Manchester; 2015.
This thesis explores the nature of cyber-security at the beginning of the 21st century.
In the current security paradigm, security strategies based on anticipatory governance
have become essential in the management of the constantly changing cyber-security
environment. Thus, this thesis aims to understand security strategies and governance
introduced in the European region. The increased dependency on cyber-space is visible
in all public-private sectors and governmental operations, as well as communications
between groups and individuals. As a result, cyber-attacks on public and private entities
are increasing. This requires a security framework that is flexible and establishes
different types of security cooperation to manage the widespread cyber-risks. This
is essential to the development of security strategies, governance forms, practices,
and guidelines for enhancing resilience and preparedness towards cyber-risks. Therefore,
I am examining cyber-security through the lenses of nodal governance and governmentality,
which enables me to understand European cyber-security strategies and governance forms
developed by the Council of Europe, the European Union, and the North-Atlantic Treaty
Organization. To analyse existing strategies and governance forms, I have used two
critical security schools, the Copenhagen School and the Paris School, which cover
different aspects of the security agenda. The thesis develops a substantive analytical
framework through two case studies, namely cyber-security and cyber-terrorism. The
findings in this thesis identifies problem areas, such as the complexity of the nodal
system, the legislative lacuna, reliance on different governance forms, transparency
and accountability, and types of anticipatory governance and regulatory practices.