Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2011;.
The proportion of patients with heart failure (HF) who have diabetes is increasing.
Patients with HF not known to be diabetic are at high risk of developing insulin resistance
and impaired glucose tolerance, although the true prevalence and incidence are unknown.
Despite the frequent co-occurrence of these conditions we have little evidence to
direct prevention, screening and management of these patients, although earlier identification
is advocated. This clinical update will define abnormal glucose levels and insulin
resistance, review the pathophysiology, prevalence and incidence of glucose and insulin
abnormalities in patients with HF, discuss prognostic implications, and make recommendations
for clinical practice.